5.1. Features of a design
The Ford Fusion cars equip with the four-cylinder 16-valvate petrol engines (1.2, 1.4, 1.6 Duratec) and diesel engines (1.4, 1.6 Duratorq) located across a motor compartment. In this book only the Duratec 1.6 engine which is installed on the most part of the released cars is described. It has much in common with other engines of family, but its design more difficult.
Fig. 5.1. Engine: 1 – generator; 2 – admission module; 3 – stopper of an oil-filling mouth; 4 – cover of a head of the block of cylinders; 5 – fuel stage; 6 – ignition coil; 7 – sensor of temperature of cooling liquid; 8 – head of the block of cylinders; 9 – katkollektor; 10 – flywheel; 11 – block of cylinders; 12 – starter; 13 – oil case; 14 – oil filter; 15 – conditioner compressor; 16 – block of a plait of wires of the fan of the cooling system of the engine; 17 – index of level of oil (oil probe)
The Duratec 1.6 engine (fig. 5.1) with the top arrangement of two five-basic camshafts has four valves on each cylinder. Camshafts are given to rotation by the reinforced gear belt. The tension of a belt is provided with a spring of a tension roller. Valves are given directly from camshafts through the cylindrical pushers serving as at the same time adjusting elements of gaps in the drive.
In the head of the block of cylinders made of aluminum alloy according to the cross scheme of a purge of cylinders (inlet and final channels are located on the opposite sides of a head), saddles and the directing plugs of valves are pressed. Inlet and final valves have on one spring recorded through a plate by two crackers. The head of the block is aligned on the block by two plugs and is attached by ten screws. Between the block and a head the nonshrinking metalreinforced laying is established. In the top part of a head of the block of cylinders about five support of bearings of sliding of two camshafts are executed. The lower parts of support are executed for a single whole with a head of the block of cylinders, and top (covers) – are attached to a head by screws. Openings of support process assembled with covers therefore covers are not interchanged and on each of them there is serial number.
The block of cylinders represents the uniform casting from special high-strength cast iron forming cylinders, the cooling shirt, the top part of a case and five support of a bent shaft executed in the form of case partitions. Cylinders are chiseled directly in a block body. In the lower part of the block five beds of radical bearings with the removable covers attached to the block by bolts are executed. Covers of radical bearings are processed assembled with the block and not interchanged. In beds of bearings (in the top parts of support) exhaust outlets of the oil channels intended for lubricant of radical bearings and also through openings in which ball valves with nozzles through which oil is sprayed on the bottoms of pistons and a wall of cylinders are pressed are executed. On the block of cylinders special inflows, flanges and openings for fastening of details, knots and units, and also channels of the trunk oil main are executed.
The bent shaft made of high-strength cast iron rotates in the radical bearings supplied with steel thin-walled inserts with an antifrictional layer. The top inserts installed in the block of cylinders have a flute on an internal surface and a through cut on which of an exhaust outlet of the oil channel oil arrives to the ball valve with a nozzle. The lower inserts have no flutes and cuts. Axial movement of a bent shaft is limited to two identical persistent half rings. To the back end of a bent shaft six bolts attached a flywheel. On the forward end of a bent shaft the cogged pulley of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism and a pulley of the drive of auxiliary units are installed.
Pistons with a short skirt are manufactured of aluminum alloy. On a cylindrical surface of a head of the piston ring flutes for two compression and oil scraper rings are executed. The flute of an oil scraper ring has six drillings for removal of the oil removed by a ring from cylinder walls. On two of these drillings oil is brought to a piston finger.
Piston fingers of tubular section are established in lugs of pistons with a gap and pressed with a tightness in the top heads of rods which are connected by the lower heads to conrod necks of a bent shaft through thin-walled inserts which design is similar to radical inserts.
Rods steel, shod, with a double-T section core. Rods process assembled with covers. Not to mix them at assembly, serial number of the cylinder is applied on side surfaces of rods and covers.
Camshafts are cast, pig-iron.
The gas-distributing mechanism is closed by a plastic cover of a head of the block of cylinders. In it the oil separator of system of ventilation of a case is established.
The lubrication system combined (for more details see. "Lubrication system").
From below the oil case cast from aluminum alloy is attached to the block of cylinders. The flange of an oil case is condensed with WSE-M4G323-A4 sealant laying. In a case the opening with a carving stopper for oil discharge is executed.
Oil filter full-line, non-demountable, with perepuskny and antidrainage valves.
The system of ventilation of a case closed, compulsory, with removal of crankcase gases through an oil separator in a cavity of the air filter.
The engine cooling system tight, with a broad tank (for more details see. "Cooling system").
The power supply system of the engine consists of the electric fuel pump installed in the fuel tank of the throttle knot, the filter of thin purification of fuel and the regulator of pressure of fuel installed in the module of the fuel pump, the compensator of pulsations of pressure of fuel, nozzles and fuel pipelines and also includes the air filter.
The system of ignition microprocessor, consists of the coil of ignition, high-voltage wires and spark plugs. The electronic block of a control system of the engine operates the coil of ignition. The system of ignition at operation does not demand service and adjustment.
The power unit (the engine with the transmission, coupling and the main transfer) is installed on three support with elastic rubber elements: two lobbies perceiving the bulk of the power unit, and back, compensating torque from transmission and the loadings arising at start-off of the car from the place, dispersal and braking.